Paul is a UK and European Patent Attorney and works primarily in the engineering, materials and consumer products fields. His PhD focussed on fuel injectors for direct injection spark ignition engines, and was carried out under the sponsorship of two large automotive manufacturers. His specialities include developments in the fields of automotive research, power and control systems. Paul has experience in developing intellectual property portfolios for individual inventors, multinational manufacturers, and SMEs in between. He advises on the most appropriate form, scope, and combination of protection for the project at hand – whether that be patents, designs, copyright, or trade secrets – in order to build a robust and commercially appropriate IP portfolio. Paul has in-depth experience of drafting and prosecuting patent applications for international prosecution in the UK, Europe, and worldwide, as well as advising on complex issues of ownership and assignment. He also advises on commercial issues, such as due diligence and Infringement Risk Analysis (Freedom to Operate), considering the validity and potential infringement risk of third party patent rights to provide his clients with visibility on the risks involved in any new project. Paul also has a great record at Opposition oral proceedings before the EPO, helping his clients to reduce the risk and barriers to entry for their new products entering the market.